Free Radio: 40+ years on 

2 September 2007


“Big L time is three o’clock, and Radio London is now… closing down….” If you were tuned to 266 metres, Medium Wave, on August 14, 1967 these words spoken by Paul Kaye, followed by the immortal strains of the extended PAMS “Sonowaltz” jingle, aka “Big Lil”, were what we heard forty years ago – virtually to the minute as I write this. The “Marine &c Offences Act, 1967” was to become law at midnight, and virtually all the remaining off-shore radio stations that had variously graced the shores around the country for the previous several years left the air at some time during the day. All except Radio Caroline which – accompanied by Johnny Walker’s voice, over the Alan Moorhouse’s recording of Ballad of the Green Berets, telling us, “This is a story of man’s fight for freedom. The beginning is in the past; the middle is now; the end, is in the future…” – slipped into illegality at midnight.



Radio London's ship

The stations were to be replaced, from September 30th, by BBC Radio 1 on 247 metres, with a format based on that of the off-shore stations – with several of the same personnel – and similar US-style jingles from past PAMS collections.

Transdiffusion has commented in detail, in Robin Carmody’s exceptional article The Politics of Off-Shore Radio, that the Labour government of the time took a major mis-step in banning the so-called ‘pirate’ stations, first closing down those in British waters – mainly the forts – with the good old Wireless Telegraphy Act 1949, as amended (and anyone with a recording of the Choir of King’s College Cambridge singing the WTA, widely broadcast at the time, please let me know). Then the Marine &c Offences Act made it illegal for UK organisations to supply, advertise or basically have anything to do with the off-shore stations. The pressure was enough to close them down, Caroline making arrangements to be supplied from Holland and then Eire – until such time as they might introduce similar legislation. Almost certainly the closure lost the Labour Party a significant number of seats in the east of England for years to come.

We campaigned for “Free Radio”, back in those days, with rallies in Trafalgar Square, car stickers and the lot. What did we think we were campaigning for? It certainly wasn’t “free radio” – the stations were simply modelled, by and large, on American Top 40 commercial radio stations. Indeed, we were de facto campaigning for plain old commercial radio, as had been common in North America for decades and even beamed to these shores from elsewhere in the form of Radio Luxembourg and its predecessors such as Radio Normandy since the 1920s.


Britain Radio/Radio England


The “Roaring Sixties’, probably members of the band The Ivy League, recorded a song that captured what it was really about for us: hearing the music we wanted to hear.

The Government wants to close them down
But we want them to stay
They’re playing sounds that we all like
So don’t take them away…
When you’re walking down the street with your transistor radio
Everybody has a good time
You can dance to the beat of your transistor radio
Even when the sun don’t shine
You can hear your favorite rock ‘n’ roll
Rhythm and blues with a lot of soul
We love the pirate stations
We love the pirate stations
We love the pirate stations

Don’t let them take ’em away (Don’t let them take ’em away)
(Don’t let them take ’em away)
There’s some swinging DJ’s playing Top 40 records
That’ll really turn you on
Now the government’s trying to close down the stations
What’ll happen when they’re gone?
You won’t hear the music that you like
Any old time of day or night

We love the pirate stations
Hands off the pirate stations
Fight for the pirate stations

Please don’t take ’em away (Please don’t take ’em away)
(Please don’t take ’em away)…

The fact is that we didn’t care whether the radio we heard was “free” or not: we wanted to hear the music we liked, which was not given a great deal of airplay on the BBC – exactly the same factors that had made Captain Plugge and the International Broadcasting Company successful in the 1930s, when they played popular dance music which the BBC ignored.


Radio Scotland



The commercials just came as part of the package: we might remember “Bulova time is one o’clock: when you know what makes a watch tick, you’ll buy a Bulova” just as our parents could sing, “We are the Ovaltineys/Little girls and boys…”. But we would have been (more or less) equally happy if the BBC had been playing the music we wanted to listen to – wouldn’t we?

What came next probably was free radio. That first Free Radio rally was supported by its own radio station, what was to become Radio Free London. Stations sprang up all over London and no doubt elsewhere, broadcasting from our bedrooms with a wire antenna strung out down the garden. We all had our own little stations, gradually aggregating into more or less stable structures like the Radio Free Helen Network and the various Radio Free London variants plus a few stand-alone broadcasters. We were all infringing the WTA and many of us got caught by Mr Smith and the men from the Post Office – sometimes within half an hour of powering up – and fined for it, forcing the more persevering stations to begin broadcasting from fields with battery-powered rigs and pre-recorded programmes.


Laser 558

Radio Jackie
Yet we continued. Radio Jackie became famous and is now a legitimate commercial station broadcasting to South London, just as Radio Veronica became part of the Dutch radio system and Radio Caroline turned to satellite legitimacy. Some of us explored VHF/FM with the London Transmitter of Independent Radio, a kind of pirate IBA, owning the transmitters that put out programmes from a different ‘contractor’ every night: Radio Aquarius (light music), Radio Jackie VHF (pop), Radio London Underground (free format, modelled if anything on the Pacifica stations in the US)… We were creating Free Radio all right, and nary a paid commercial between us, with our one- or two-hour shows – the longest we felt we could do and not be closed down by the Post Office, until an emboldened Jackie extended broadcasting times. And as you can see from the LTIR stations above, we were not by any means all Top 40 pop stations: we were specialists covering different genres, more like FM radio in the US and something that has only really gained legitimacy in the UK with the advent of DAB.

The advent of BBC local radio and then, in particular, ILR in October 1973 overshadowed our tiny efforts. The big commercial station, Capital Radio, emulated Radio 1 and in turn, in many cases, ILR stations around the country emulated Capital. We ended up with a national network consisting largely – though not exclusively, it’s true – of soundalike radio stations. Perhaps the only odd thing was that Britain was, as Kenny Everett once remarked in his inimitable way, the only country to have commercial radio after it had commercial television.



Arguably we got what we were asking for: commercial, Top 40 radio. Was it “Free Radio”? No. Is it what we really wanted? Hmmm. Be careful what you wish for…


You Say

6 responses to this article

Alex Mckenna 21 September 2015 at 3:57 pm

I loved the bit about pirates in bedrooms with aerials going down to the end of the garden :-) My wire was tethered to a big cherry tree, and Stanley Smith and his mate Gotts tracked me down all the way from Chigwell apparently. Amazing given that I was pumping out about a millionth of a watt from an extremely crude RF amplifier, consisting of six little DET-20 valves, perched on two upturned Oxo tins, 12v heater supply from an old Hornby-Dublo train controller. The VFO was taken from the inside of an old thirties radio. Such fun we had.. I imagine they took my transmitter straight to the GPO Museum of Horrors.

Arthur Nibble 5 November 2015 at 12:07 pm

Alex McKenna and his mighty antenna!

Michel DeBaynard 3 February 2016 at 7:52 pm

I loved the pirates – they were NOT illegal: they were outside of the law, and in free international waters. But a vindictive socialist government in the UK, which couldn’t bear the concept of radio competition, succeeded in chocking them to death.


Without the pirates we would have – still – the state-run radio monolith.

The paid a heavy price – but they helped establish a more liberal radio scene.

Only trouble is, now, the so-called “independant” radio stations, are all owned and controlled by one ad agency: they all sound like the same bowl of cold porridge. Plus ça change…

Give me back the ole pirates – not perfect by any means, but providing great radio in those days -sometimes at great risk to themselves.

God Speed Caroline, Big L, Vironika and RNI.

Stuart Cunningham 11 August 2017 at 5:50 pm

Oh, how we miss them, those early pioneers who are sadly no longer with us must be turning in their graves at the poor excuse for radio we have to put up with these days, but wasn’t “The Ballad of the Green Berets” by Staff Sergeant Barry Sadler?

Phil Crosby 17 June 2018 at 11:10 am

After being nobbled by GPO ‘bully boy’ Stan Smith and his mates, my little 25w Thames Radio station in Surrey closed down, only to re-emerge first as Radio Britannia (256m), then reverting to Thames Radio International (with s/w outlet), all done by batteries in the local woods. A mighty station 1969-1973) very professional sounding with 100w output covering most of Surrey. We still have the gear!

Kevin 18 November 2019 at 3:56 am

Radio Caroline does still exist via internet, 648k medium wave and via Manx radio on the isle of man 1368k one weekend a month. They are also available on Dab in certain areas. This is still the original station unlike many other stations on the net who are just original stations by name only. This station is comparable to it’s 70’s rebirth but for the lovers of sixties Caroline they also have another station called Caroline Flashback currently on internet only. They are great stations and you should give then a listen. I am not connected to Radio Caroline in any way, I just love and admire the fact that they have continued to operate over the years.

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